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Instructions for Written Work

Information not received from a primary source

As a rule, always strive to use primary sources. A secondary source (’source of a source’) can be cited if, in practice, it is impossible or most difficult to get a chance to consult the primary source. If the information comes from a secondary source, it must be made evident in the text. The examples below illustrates how a citation is technically made in those cases.


The use of the method has been studied in social sciences (Mazlish, 1998, pp. 60−64, according to Löytty & Kinnunen, 2020, p. 55).


According to Löytty and Kinnunen (2020, p. 55), Mazlish (1998, pp. 60–64) has criticized...


Only a secondary source is entered in the bibliography.


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