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Instructions for Written Work

Statistics and research data


In the bibliography

Author’s surname, Initial(s) of first name(s). (Publication year or date). Title (Serie). Publisher. DOI/URN/URL 


Name of group. (Date). Title. DOI/URNURL

  • The date of publication is stated in the form of an exact date if mentioned in the source. If no exact date is mentioned in the source, give the year of publication. If no date of publication is mentioned, write (n.d.), i.e. “no date”, instead of one. The date of publication is given in parentheses.
  • All sources from different databases and electronic data services requiring login are mentioned without the name of the database.
  • URL addresses of electronic sources are not abbreviated 
  • Some statistics databases allow the selection of variables for statistical summaries. In those situations, the selected variables are mentioned in the bibliographical entry before the web address.


PostNord. (July 14, 2021). Percentage of e-commerce consumers who purchased products online in Finland in 2020, by product category. Statista. 


Natural Resouces Institute Finland. (n.d.). Agricultural land rents by line of production and ELY centre. Selected variables: 2018 - 2020, South Ostrobothnia and Cereals production.


In text-citation 

(Eurostat, 2020)


(PostNord, 2021)


(Natural Resources Institute Finland, n.d.)


Data set 

  • Research data refers to the data used, collected or generated during a study. It may be, for example, a measurement result, the answers to surveys and interviews, or a video made during a study.
  • In data archives, you can find ready-made research data that you can utilise in your thesis/study. 


In the bibliography

Author’s surname, Initial(s) of first name(s). (Date). Title: Subtitle (Version) [Data set] Publisher. DOI/URN/URL 

Huhta, A. (2018). DIALUKI: Diagnosing reading and writing in a second or foreign language [Data set] University of Jyväskylä. https://urn:nbn:fi:lb-20140730161


In text-citation 

Huhta (2018) 

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