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Instructions for Written Work

Citation covering two or more sentences

Author-oriented citing

 

In author-oriented citing, expressions marking the continuation of the above reference are inserted in the sentences following the in-text reference. Then, the same reference also covers the subsequent sentences. The uninterrupted referencing sequence ends in the writer’s own text (e.g., a comment on the reference), a new in-text reference, or the end of the paragraph.  
 

Rautanen (2009, p. 111) emphasizes the importance of customer value for the risk management of intellectual capital. He regards the risks of marketing and sales as parts or manifestations of customer value. 

 

According to the EU Standard SFS-EN 1218-2+A1 (Suomen Standardisoimisliitto, 2009, Item 5.3.3), in manually chargeable combined-feed machines, the feed can be started with a tool, and not automatically. In accordance with the Standard, it is obligatory that each engine of the tool can also be started separately. According to the Standard, the starting of shafts conceived to only be used with outer bearings is only allowed after the outer bearing has been installed. 

 

The Companies Act (624/2006), Chapter 2, Section 1, stipulates that, for the establishment of a company, a separate establishment agreement shall be made in writing and signed by all the shareholders. According to the Act, when signing the establishment agreement, the shareholder subscribes the number of shares indicated by the establishment agreement.

 

When the treatment of the matter continues in the subsequent sentences, the basic assumption is that the reader associates them with the above source. The uninterrupted referencing sequence ends in a new in-text reference, the writer’s own text, or the end of the paragraph. The pages referred to often change within the same referencing sequence, which must be immediately indicated to the reader. 

Mäkelä (2019, p. 32) points out that Moodle provides a myriad of options for the display of courses. He notes (p. 33), however, that… 

 

Subject-oriented citation

The in-text reference is placed within the first sentence, and the writer must make sure that the reader understands that the subsequent sentences, too, are connected with the same in-text reference.   

Customer value is of key significance in the risk management of intellectual capital (Rautanen, 2009, p. 111). The risks of marketing and sales as parts or manifestations of customer value. 

 

In manually chargeable combined-feed machines, the feed can be started with a tool, and not automatically (Suomen Standardisoimisliitto, 2009, Item 5.3.3). It is obligatory that each engine of the tool can also be started separately. The starting of shafts conceived to only be used with outer bearings is only allowed after the outer bearing has been installed.

 

For the establishment of a company, a separate establishment agreement shall be made in writing and signed by all the shareholders (Companies Act 624/2006, Chapter 2, Section 1). When signing the establishment agreement, the shareholder subscribes the number of shares indicated by the establishment agreement. 

 

In case you need to refer to another page of the same source within the same paragraph, instead of repeating the source you can use the abbreviation op. cit. (< Lat. opere citato, ‘from the work cited’). 

In subject-oriented referencing, you can use the abbreviation op. cit. (‘in the cited work’) when referring to the same source as above, but only within the same paragraph (= a portion of text delimited by blink lines). In that case, too, the page(s) must be mentioned. 

Industrial and processed food is often seen as unhealthy food, whereas its opposite is unprocessed, natural, and healthy food (Lupton, 1996, p. 91). Food regarded as healthy helps people get closer to ideal life, away from the modern and complex world (op. cit., p. 89).

 

Tacit knowledge is often such knowledge the existence of which is not always recognized (Kajanto et al., 2008, s. 107). Tacit knowledge is best transferred by doing things together (op. cit., p. 205). It is not until an employee quits their job that organizations often realize how much knowledge is lost on that occasion (op. cit., p. 7).

 

In the absence of page numbers, the abbreviation op. cit. is used without one. The following example includes, between sentences referring to the source, one sentence consisting of the thesis writer’s own reasoning.  
 

The Mediterranean diet is one option for the diabetic’s diet (Antikainen & Schwab, 2019). According to the author's the Mediterranean diet refers to a diet including plenty of vegetables, pulses and fruit, olive oil, nuts, and wholegrain products, and little meat, sugar, and white grains. Consequently, this diverse and vegetable-rich diet is healthy for a diabetic, too. It is important for a person observing a vegetable diet to assure the intake of all nutrients using dietary supplements or vegetable-based products complemented with vitamins and minerals, such as dairy products (op. cit.).

 

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