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Instructions for Written Work

Publication with several authors

Two authors

If a publication has two authors, the surnames of both are mentioned. In subject-oriented referencing authors are are separated with an ampersand (&). In author-orinted citing their names are separated with the word "and". 

Tuomi and Sarajärvi (2013, pp. 33–34) suggest...


(Tuomi & Sarajärvi 2013, pp. 33–34).


Three or more authors

If the source has three or more authors, only the first author’s surname is mentioned, followed by the abbreviation “et al.”. 

Virtanen et al. (2008, pp. 57–59) write...


(Virtanen et al., 2008, pp. 57–59).

To avoid ambiguity when referring to two or more publications by the same authors, mention a sufficient number of authors in the in-text reference so as to distinguish the references from each other.   


Kapoor, Bloom, Montez, et al. (2017, p. 45) write
According to Kapoor, Bloom, Zucker, et al. (2017, p. 89) 



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