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Instructions for Written Work

Use of punctuation


A hyphen is a short line which is mainly used in compound words in English. A hyphen is used in the following type of cases:
– Standard-type solutions
– Up-to-date resources
– Right-hand edge.


An en-dash is longer than the hyphen, roughly the width of the lettern. The en-dash is used in numerical ranges, such as:
– 5–6%
– 30–40 degrees
– 26–29 May
– Kotler 2009, 115–116

If an en-dash is not available, a hyphen may be used with a space on both sides.

To avoid confusion, three dots can be used between two numbers in scientific and technical texts: –10...–15 degrees Celsius (or: –10...–15ºC). The minus sign is an en-dash (not a hyphen).


Numerals must be separated from their succeeding unit with a space, e.g. 25 cm. Currency signs go in front of the amount, e.g. € 200. A number and its unit must be kept on the same line (if this is not possible, the unit should be written out in full). For numerals consisting of four or more digits, use commas as thousands separators (e.g. 8,245,760) or leave spaces (8 245 760). Comma separators are not used in decimal parts of numbers (e.g. 2.56725) or in years (e.g. 2009). Note that decimals are separated from the integer number by a point
(see above).

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