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Instructions for Written Work

Subject-orinted citing

Subject-oriented citing is used when presenting facts (such as laws and statutes, or factual knowledge of other kinds), void of interpretation or opinions. In that case, the in-text reference is within parentheses, in the first sentence. 

In-text references placed after the paragraph to refer to the entire paragraph are not used. Instead, in-text references are placed within the paragraph.  

A municipality shall have a building code (Building Act 132/2006). The regulations of the building code may differ between the different areas of the municipality. The building code includes provisions based on local conditions, which are necessary for systematic and appropriate building, taking cultural and natural values into account, and the achievement and preservation of a good living environment. The regulations of the building code shall not be unreasonable for the landowner or another holder of a right. 


In subject-oriented referencing, you can use the abbreviation op. cit. (‘in the cited work’) when referring to the same source as above, but only within the same paragraph (= a portion of text delimited by blink lines). In that case, too, the page(s) must be mentioned.  

Industrial and processed food is often seen as unhealthy food, whereas its opposite is unprocessed, natural, and healthy food (Lupton, 1996, p. 91). Food regarded as healthy helps people get closer to ideal life, away from the modern and complex world (op. cit., p. 89).


Tacit knowledge is often such knowledge the existence of which is not always recognized (Kajanto et al., 2008, p. 107). Tacit knowledge is best transferred by doing things together (op. cit., p. 205). It is not until an employee quits their job that organizations often realize how much knowledge is lost on that occasion (op. cit., p. 7). 


In the absence of page numbers, the abbreviation op. cit. is used without one. The following example includes, between sentences referring to the source, one sentence consisting of the reader’s/thesis writer’s own reasoning.   

The Mediterranean diet is one option for the diabetic’s diet (Antikainen & Schwab, 2019). The Mediterranean diet refers to a diet including plenty of vegetables, pulses and fruit, olive oil, nuts, and wholegrain products, and little meat, sugar, and white grains. Consequently, this diverse and vegetable-rich diet is healthy for a diabetic, too. It is important for a person observing a vegetable diet to assure the intake of all nutrients using dietary supplements or vegetable-based products complemented with vitamins and minerals, such as dairy products (op. cit.).

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