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Instructions for Written Work

Personal communications

Personal communications include

  • emails
  • text messages
  • online chats or direct messages
  • telephone conversations
  • live speeches
  • memos
  • letters


Personal communicatios are not included in the bibliogarphy. They are cited in the text only. Give the initial(s) and surname of the communicator, and provide as exact date as possible, using the following format:

Author's Initial(s), Surname (personal communication, Month Day, Year)


(E. Morrison, personal communication, March 10, 2021)



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