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Instructions for Written Work

Personal communications and organizations' internal data sources

Personal communications


Personal communications include

  • emails
  • text messages
  • online chats or direct messages
  • telephone conversations
  • live speeches
  • memos
  • letters


Personal communicatios are not included in the bibliogarphy. They are cited in the text only. Give the initial(s) and surname of the communicator, and provide as exact date as possible, using the following format:

Author's Initial(s), Surname (personal communication, Month Day, Year)


(E. Morrison, personal communication, March 10, 2021)



Organizations’ internal data sources

Organizations’ internal data sources include, for instance, internal instructions, reports, and other online sources available through intranet. Internal data sources are mentioned in the bibliography.

According to Siemens’ strategy (internal data source, 13 December 2021) 

Always check with the authors or owners of unpublished documents whether the information included in them is confidential or classified, and act accordingly.

It is important to convey the information included in an internal data source as accurately as possible in the text, so that the reader gets an idea of the type of the source. 

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