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Instructions for Written Work

Page numbers

When referring to the book or study as a whole, the page number is not mentioned. Otherwise, pages numbers are mentioned, which is a deviation from the recommendation of APA 7. The abbreviation for a page number is p.  

According to Hirsjärvi and Hurme (2008, p. 42), there is a clear difference between an interview and a discussion. An interview is planned and goal-oriented, and aimed at collecting information, whereas a discussion is more like spending time together. 

If the same in-text reference covers different pages of the same source, the pages are separated by a comma. 

Hirsjärvi and Hurme (2008, pp. 42, 45) 


If the reference covers a larger, uninterrupted portion of text, the start and end pages are separated with an n dash (when using Word: press Ctrl and the minus sign):

Hirsjärvi and Hurme (2008, pp. 56–58) 


If the source has no page numbers, refer, according to the part of the source, to a chapter, paragraph, table, or picture:

(Viitala, 2013, Chapter "Human Resource Management")


 (Mäkelä, 2018, Picture 3)


The joint municipal board of a monolingual municipality and a hospital district shall provide their health care services in the language of the municipality or joint municipal board (Health Care Act 1326/2010, 6 §). 


If you want, you can refer to a certain part of the recording; in that case, indicate the start of the part in question: 

(Salakari, 2020, 38:05) 

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