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Instructions for Written Work

Expert interviews, personal communications and organizations’ internal data sources


Expert interviews

In the bibliography

Surname of expert interviewees, Initial(s) (title of interviewees, organization). (day of the interview). Title or subject of the interview [expert interview]. 

Gröhn, A. (senior physician, JIK-peruspalveluliikelaitoskuntayhtymä). (2021 August ,18).The Impact of COVID-19 on Employees` Wellbeing [expert interview]. 


In text-citation

According to senior physician Gröhn (2021)


  • The expert interview is through in advance and the interviewee knows they are participating in the interview.
  • The literary background is used as an aid.
  • This differs from APA7's recommendation.


Personal communications

Personal communications can include:

  • personal interviews
  • emails
  • letters
  • memos
  • phone conversations
  • text messages

Personal communications are NOT included in the bibliography. They are only added as an in-text citation.

Author’s Initial(s). Surname (personal communication, Month Day, Year)

E. Varamäki (personal communication, March 25, 2021)


Organizations’ internal data sources

Organizations’ internal data sources include, for instance, internal instructions, reports, and other online sources available through intranet. Internal data sources are mentioned in the bibliography.

According to Siemens’ strategy (internal data source, 13 December 2021) 

Always check with the authors or owners of unpublished documents whether the information included in them is confidential or classified, and act accordingly.

It is important to convey the information included in an internal data source as accurately as possible in the text, so that the reader gets an idea of the type of the source. 


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