All the sources mentioned in in-text references must be included in the bibliography. The sources are mentioned in alphabetical order. Sources of different kinds are not grouped, e.g., into printed sources or unprinted sources, but all the sources are included in uninterrupted alphabetical order.
Sources without an individual author are listed according to a possible corporate author or the title of the source in such a way that the reference in the bibliography is identical with the in-text reference. If the reference is too long to be included on one line, the following line(s) is/are indented. To create a bibliography, use the Bibliog style.
In general, a bibliographic entry in printed material has the following form:
When creating the bibliography, the following principles are observed:
Armstrong, S. (i.a.).
Armstrong, S. (2015).
Armstrong, S. (2021a).
Armstrong, S. (2021b).
Armstrong, S. (15.1.2022a).
Armstrong, S. (20.1.2022b).
Armstrong, S. (1.3.2022c).
Davison, T. E. (2022).
Davison, T. E., & Jackson, A., & McCabe, M. P. (2019).
Davison, T. E., & McCabe, M. P. (2021)
Next, there are examples of bibliographic references to sources of different kinds. The examples include the principal pattern, followed by examples of applications of that pattern. If the case example does not include some piece of information included in the pattern, such as the edition or translator, it is left out.
In references to online sources, such as websites and E-books, the same principles are observed as in references to printed sources. These principles are not always easy to observe, because the Web includes a lot of material lacking, e.g., the data on the author and the date of publication.
Some publishers or online services (such as Kela, Theseus, the Current Care Guidelines) have issued instructions for referencing. However, SeAMK’s APA instructions are observed when implementing references to their sources.
A bibliographic entry varies somewhat according to the type of the source (e.g., a date is sometimes mentioned instead of a year), and the exact references are found in the examples of the present instructions. In general, a bibliographic entry has the following form:
If the source does not mention the author(s), the source is included in the bibliography stating first the corporate author, or the name of the company or organisation (such as Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Ministry of Education and Culture, Statistics Finland, Tekes, Finnish Food Authority, etc.).
The date of publication is stated in the form of an exact date if mentioned in the source. If no exact date is mentioned in the source, give the year of publication. If no date of publication is mentioned, write (n.d.), i.e. “no date”, instead of one. The date of publication is given in parentheses.
The source is linked to a permanent web address (such as DOI, URN, Handle, PURL), if mentioned in the source. The DOI identifier is given in the form https://doi.org/xxxxx . The URN is given in the http://urn.fi/xxxxx . If the source has no permanent address, the URL address (or the normal web address) is used. Web addresses are activated.
Sometimes, a website has been built in such a way that its address does not change even if the viewed page changed. In that case, the exact location of the document is not displayed in the address field. In such a case, it is advisable to give the link path allowing to find the desired page in the reference.
The name of no database is mentioned and no link to it is given unless it is a permanent address (DOI/URN).